I'm Mike Pope. I live in the Seattle area. I've been a technical writer and editor for over 30 years. I'm interested in software, language, music, movies, books, motorcycles, travel, and ... well, lots of stuff.

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If there is a bedrock principle underlying the First Amendment, it is that the government may not prohibit the expression of an idea simply because society finds the idea itself offensive or disagreeable.

Supreme Court Justice William J. Brennan, Jr.


<July 2018>




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Updated every 30 minutes. Last: 3:27 AM Pacific

  09:54 AM

A fairly regular occurrence in the editor groups I participate in on Facebook or Twitter is that someone posts about how the spelling or grammar tools in Microsoft Word have gotten something spectacularly wrong. As I've noted before, editors in particular seem to take glee in bashing the grammar checker.

I find this frustrating for a couple of reasons, and I've pushed back a bit on social media when I see posts that dismiss proofing tools. But I thought I owed it to people to explain why I think it's not productive exercise to bash the tools. (Modulo the entertainment value of hilariously bad advice, which is by no means limited to advice dispensed by tools.)

I'm going to focus on two issues: the measurable deficiencies of the tool, and the question of audience.

Measureable, reproducible deficiencies

Imagine that you are a program manager (PM) at Microsoft whose job it is to improve the grammar-checking tool. It's not news to you that the tool gets things wrong sometimes.

You go out into the world to find out what sorts of problems people are having with the grammar checker. You find no shortage of complaints. An article in Slate claims that the grammar checker "makes your writing worse." At least that article has some explicit examples. Other complaints are more abstract:

Put yourself in the place of that PM. How is the grammar checker "creating problems"? Which things is it flagging that are "not errors"? What are examples of the "incorrect options as solutions"? These types of generalized, "it just doesn't work!" observations don't help the PM learn anything specific about what to fix. And they don't necessarily help other users, either, since it doesn't tell a user what to look out for.

As a PM, I might also have some questions about how prevalent these errors are. What percentage of the time does the grammar checker correctly flag errors? 15 percent of the time? 40 percent? 85 percent? In other words, are the issues that people report exceptions in an otherwise functioning tool, or are errors the norm? (If errors are the norm, I as PM would be surprised, since it's not like the company doesn't test the grammar checker.)

There's also a question about what constitutes an error. The grammar checker can find actual, non-controversial errors, like subject-verb disagreement. It can also check style—things like the use of passive:

As the PM, I might ask people to adjust the various knobs and levers to see whether the "mistakes" made by grammar checker are simply suggestions that they disagree with.

If I were that PM, I'd say that sure, please let us know where you're running into issues with the grammar checker. But be specific. Show us the error. Will we be able to reproduce it on the current version of Word? If you adjust the settings, do you still see the issue? And I would ask that in addition to posting on social media about the error, why not engage with the Microsoft community to see if your issue is known? In short, I as PM would ask you to use your experience to help make the product better.


Let's move on and talk about who the audience is for the grammar checker in Word. Let me posit this: the grammar-checker tool in Word is not designed for professional editors. No, let me take a step back: Word itself is designed for corporate use. When the Office team thinks about improving their product, they're not thinking primarily about freelance editors, or novelists, or programmers who are creating README files. They think a great deal about employees at companies that are going to buy 500 or 5000 or 50,000 site license of Office. Merge tools for mailing labels? Two-click tables of contents? Let's face it: the prototypical Word user is someone who sits in a cubicle.[1]

My point is that I think the prototypical user is not expert in spelling or grammar. Nor are they producing works of art— no, they're working on reports and memos and other contributions to the great stream of prose that moves corporations forward every day.

I note this because one editor I know said that she had once taken an article by Louis Menand (Harvard faculty, writer for the New Yorker) and run it through the Word grammar checker. She reports that the grammar checker had substantially worsened the article.

This does not surprise me. Let me give you an analogy. Suppose you want to make a dress. You buy a dress pattern and carefully follow all the directions. When you're done, you have a dress! But you do not have a Pierre Cardin dress, or a Dior, or a Vera Wang.

A dress pattern lets a person of modest skills produce a functional finished product. A dress pattern in the hands of an ordinary person does not produce a work of art. Similarly, the grammar checker in Word helps a writer of ordinary skills produce workable copy. It is not designed to help an ordinary writer produce extraordinary prose. It will not turn the average denizen of a corporate cuberhood into Louis Menand.

We professional editors cannot make broad judgments about a tool because we think it isn't as smart as we are about grammar and style. (Though it is probably more thorough.) We have to consider whether it's useful for its intended audience, and gauge the tool in terms of how well it helps that audience.

Finally, we have to help people use the tool to its best advantage. If someone who is unskilled is using some tool incorrectly, you don't say to them "Yeah, that tool sucks." You teach them how to use it right. How about if we do that?

Related posts:
[1] Full disclosure: this is speculation on my part. I am not privy to the planning process of the Office team, past or present.



  08:28 AM

There are many reasons to use styles in Word, as I've noted before. One feature I find handy is using styles that have different spell-check options for different types of text. I'll explain a couple of examples: one where I set a non-default spell-check option (Spanish), and another where I disable spell check for code snippets.

Note: If you'd rather see this on video, see the links below.

Spell check for non-default languages

Suppose you're writing a document that has quotations in different languages. If you run spell check over the document, it'll barf when it gets to your citations in Spanish or French or Latin or whatever.[1]

The hard way to solve this problem is to select the text of each citation, one by one, and then to set the proofing language (Review tab > Language > Set Proofing Language).

The easier way to do it is to define a style and set the language for that style. Then you can just apply the style to your citations.

Suppose I'm writing about One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel Garcia-Marquez:

I run spell check, and uh-oh: if it's going to stop on every word of Spanish, it's going to be a long night proofing this doc:

Instead, I'll create a style just for my quotations in Spanish. In this case, I'll create a paragraph style, although I can set language options for character styles also, which is useful for cites in running text.

Here's the Create New Style dialog. The new style is named Quotation in Spanish. It's a paragraph style, based on Normal, and I've set an indent.

Then in the Format options (bottom left), I choose Language:

For the language, I choose Colombian Spanish:

Now I can apply this style to any citations in the document that are in Spanish. When spell check gets to the citations, it switches to checking spelling in Spanish. (Which is handy, since I'm a bad typist in multiple languages.)

If the document contains text in several languages, you create a different style for each non-default language that you're using and apply them as needed.

Disabling spell check for selected text

I don't actually encounter a lot of Spanish citations in my work, but I do encounter a lot of snippets of program code and HTML. I also encounter filenames and URLs that are oddly spelled per English conventions. As with non-English text, this can throw spell check off. So I create a style for code and for HTML blocks and for filenames and for URLs. In those styles, I disable spell check altogether.

Skipping ahead, here's an example of what some sample text looks like when these styles have been applied:

There are 3 styles at work here. The green monospace marks a character style named Code. The blue italics mark a character style named Filename. And the indented block with gray background marks text that's styled using a paragraph style named Pre (a nod to the HTML element name for code blocks).

In addition to the various formatting settings that I defined for these styles (italics, blue, green, monospace, indented, etc.), in each case I chose the Language setting. Then in the Language dialog, I chose Do not check spelling or grammar:

When spell check runs, it skips over any text that has been styled using a style with this setting.

I should note that for code and HTML snippets, it can instead make sense to add the various keywords to your dictionary. (I do this for filenames that I encounter often.) However, defining a style that simply turns off spell check has been very handy for me in the code- and HTML-heavy documents that I work on.


I made a couple of videos about this also and put them on YouTube:
[1] I do realize that Word can be set to auto-detect languages, and that this works pretty well. But the method I describe here also covers scenarios where auto-detect doesn't work well. (Klingon? Dothraki? Etc.)

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  03:02 PM

As most people discover, there's a class of writing error that spell check just can't help you with. Consider these examples:
  • We recommend that the company shit its resources for better output.
  • The event is open to the pubic.
Run these through spell check, and all is well. Only, of course, it's not.

As I recently learned, Word has a feature that can help find errors like this: an exclusion list. An exclusion list has words that are spelled perfectly fine, but that should be excluded from your documents.

The steps for creating an exclusion list are described in a great blog post by Sam Hartburn. The basic idea is that you add words, one per line, to .lex files in a specific folder on your computer. Here's the Windows location--see notes later for Mac instructions:

You can use any text editor to edit the file, including Notepad.

Note that there are different .lex files for different languages, and in fact for different flavors of each language—e.g. English US and English GB. (It's not inconceivable that there's a way to set up a global .lex file, but I don't know. Leave a comment if you know about that.)

Once you've got your exclusion list(s) updated, close and then reopen Word. Then when you run the spell checker, Word will flag words that are part of your exclusion list:

The examples I've shown here pertain to, you know, taboo vocabulary. Another excellent use for this feature is to flag words that you often mistype but are technically spelled correctly, such as manger for manager or potion for portion. Or you can use it for terms that should be avoided in your particular work, even if they're perfectly cromulent words in English. Really, you can use the exclusion list feature to have Word bring to your attention any word that you might want to double-check as part of your proofing.[1]

I do have a couple of notes for you about using exclusion lists:
  • Words in the list are case sensitive. (As indeed they are in the Word spelling dictionaries.) For example, it's probably a good idea to include both assed and Assed.

  • It's up to you to include all variant forms of a term, including plurals and verb conjugations: ass, Ass, asses, Asses, assed, Assed, assing, Assing, etc.

  • With regard to having different .lex files for different language variants, it will up to you to know what languages are in use in a given document. If a document has been through many hands, it's possible that different sections or paragraphs or even words might be flagged as having different language settings.
I learned about all this from a Twitter thread and specifically from the editor Ashley Bischoff. Not only did she introduce a bunch of us to exclusion lists by pointing to the blog post, she took the initiative to create a Google Docs spreadsheet for collecting words for potential inclusion. The doc is open to anyone. Please contribute!

PS Ashley has a second sheet in the workbook with instructions for both Windows and Mac users on how to update your exclusion lists.

[1] Microsoft alums will recognize this as similar to the Policheck tool, about which I've written before.

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  12:24 PM

I rassled a bit recently with a couple of dumb issues when creating some Word macros, so I thought I'd better write these up for my own future reference. To be clear, "dumb" here means that I should already have known this stuff, and I wasted time learning it.

1. Calling subroutines

I was trying to call a sub like this:
Sub SomeMacro
SomeOtherSub(p1, p2)
End Sub
Word got so mad about that SomeOtherSub call:

Turns out that when you call a subroutine in VBA and pass parameters, you do that without parentheses:
SomeOtherSub p1, p2
The parameters can be positional, as here, or named. For the latter, use the := syntax:
SomeOtherSub p1:="a value", p2:="another value" 

2. Exposing subroutines (implicit access modifiers)

Here was another kind of bonehead mistake I made. I wrote a subroutine sort of like this:
Sub MyMacro(param1 As String, param2 As String)
' Code here
End Sub
Then I tried to actually run this macro (Developer > Macros). The macro stubbornly refused to appear in the Macros dialog box. If I was in the macro editor and pressed F5 to try to launch it in the debugger, Word just displayed the Macros dialog box for me to pick which macro to run, but again, did not display the actual macro that I actually wanted to run.

Anyway, long story short (too late, haha), the problem was that the Sub definition included parameters:
Sub MyMacro(param1 As String, param2 As String)
Apparently if a subroutine has parameters like that, VBA considers it to have protected access—it can be called from another macro, but it can't be launched as a main. This makes sense, but it wasn't immediately obvious. What I really wanted was this:
Sub MyMacro()
I had included the parameters by accident (copy/paste error), so it was basically a dumb mistake. I just removed them and then things worked. Well, they worked until VBA ran into the next dumb mistake, whatever that was. (In my code there's always another one.)

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  02:35 PM

Another quick post about Word, primarily for my own benefit (when I forget this later).

Word has several options for how you can paste text:

They are (in order):
  • Keep Source Formatting. This option keeps the original formatting (both character and paragraph formatting), but converts it to direct formatting.

  • Merge Formatting. This option copies basic character formatting (bold, italics, underline) as direct formatting, but does not copy any paragraph formatting.

  • Use Destination Styles. This option copies the text and applies styles that are in the target document. (This option appears only if there matching styles in the target doc.)

  • Keep Text Only. This option copies the text as plain text, with no formatting.
I need the last one (paste plain text) more often than any of the others, so I want it on a keyboard shortcut. You can do this by recording a macro of yourself using the Keep Text Only option. But I realized there's an even easier way—just assign a keyboard shortcut to the built-in PasteTextOnly command.

I keep forgetting that most anything Word can do has a command. If a gesture requires just one command, you can assign a keyboard shortcut directly to it. Maybe writing this out will help me remember.

Update I added a video!

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  12:01 AM

This is another in a series of blog posts about how I configure Microsoft Word, which I add here primarily for my own reference.

I often use the Style pane, and within that pane, I often want to change the styles that are displayed. Sometimes I want to see all the styles; sometimes just the styles that are defined in the current document; sometimes just the styles currently in use.

You can change this display by using a dialog box. In the Styles pane, click the Options link, and then use the dropdown lists to select which styles to display and how they're ordered, like this:

But that can get to be an annoying number of clicks if you're switching between these display options frequently. So, macros to the rescue. I recorded myself making one of these changes, then created a couple of variations to give me the different displays I want. Here are the macros I currently use, where the sub name is (I hope) self-explanatory:
Sub SetStylesPaneToAllAlphabetical()
ActiveDocument.FormattingShowFilter = wdShowFilterStylesAll
ActiveDocument.StyleSortMethod = wdStyleSortByName
End Sub

Sub SetStylesPaneToInCurrentDocument()
ActiveDocument.FormattingShowFilter = wdShowFilterStylesAvailable
ActiveDocument.StyleSortMethod = wdStyleSortByName
End Sub

Sub SetStylesPaneToInUse()
ActiveDocument.FormattingShowFilter = wdShowFilterStylesInUse
ActiveDocument.StyleSortMethod = wdStyleSortByName
End Sub
To complete the picture, I map the macros to these keyboard shortcuts:


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  12:23 AM

I have used Microsoft Word for years—decades—but hardly a week goes by when I don't learn something new. (Including things that are probably pretty well known to others, oh well.) Anyway, TIL about how to use the batch version of auto-formatting in Word. Since I think a lot of people already know this, I'm adding the information here primarily for later reference for myself.

Word has settings to perform "auto-formatting as you type." These include things like converting quotation marks into so-called smart quotes (i.e., typographical quotation marks), converting double hyphens (--) into em-dashes (—), converting typed fractions (1/2) into typographic fractions (½), etc. You set these options in the AutoCorrect dialog box: File > Options > Proofing, AutoCorrect Options button, AutoFormat As You Type tab.

It turns out that Word can also apply these auto-formatting instructions after the fact. In the same AutoCorrect dialog box, there's a tab named just AutoFormat:

This has most of the same options as with auto-format-as-you-type. Here's the neat part: you can get Word to apply these formatting options by pressing alt+ctrl+k. There's no UI gesture, but you can use the feature for customizing the ribbon to add the relevant command to the ribbon or Quick Access Toolbar.

A use case where I can see this working pretty well is if you paste text in from a text editor. (I do this all the time.)

Credit where it's due: I learned about this from the article How to Automatically Format an Existing Document in Word 2013 by Lori Kaufman on the How-To Geek site. As I say, I'm adding this info here primarily for my own benefit. :-)

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  11:13 PM

I just installed Word 2013 and was disappointed to note that some of the long-standing keyboard shortcuts no longer work. For example, I've been using Alt+V,A for years (decades?) to invoke an ancient menu command to toggle between hiding and showing revision marks. Even when they introduced the ribbon and the menus went away, a lot of those old menu-command shortcuts still worked. And some still do; but this particular one no longer does, darn it.

I spent a little while trying to map keystrokes to the show-revision and hide-revision commands in the Review tab. Either I'm not finding them or (as I believe) there's no longer a single command to toggle show/hide of rev marks in the way I've come to rely on.

So, macro time. Using the macro recorder and some editing, I created the following macro and then mapped Alt+V,A to it. Macros are stored in Normal.dotm, so as long as that remains available I should be good. (Right?) However, I'll have to update Normal.dotm on each machine on which I install Word 2013.

Update 2016-03-06: For the "hide revisions" section, I changed wdRevisionsViewOriginal to wdRevisionsViewFinal. This macro always shows the "final" version, but toggles whether rev marks are displayed.

Perhaps there's an easier mapping for this functionality. If this macro thing doesn't work out, I'll investigate further.
Sub ShowOrHideShowRevisions()
If ActiveWindow.View.RevisionsFilter.Markup = wdRevisionsMarkupNone Then
' Hide revisions
With ActiveWindow.View.RevisionsFilter
.Markup = wdRevisionsMarkupAll
.View = wdRevisionsViewFinal
End With
' Show revisions
With ActiveWindow.View.RevisionsFilter
.Markup = wdRevisionsMarkupNone
.View = wdRevisionsViewFinal
.View = wdRevisionsViewOriginal
End With
End If
End Sub

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  04:55 PM

This is a blog post just to record the key remappings I do in Microsoft Word 2010. (It is probably not of interest to most people.)

I've found that it speeds up revisions tremendously to map keyboard shortcuts to the commands in Word that you use to find, accept, and reject revisions and comments. As a bonus, I don't like that the traditional Find key in Word 2010 is mapped to some sort of Navigation pane (where traditional Find is available under Advanced Find). So I map Ctrl+F as well. As I say, this is primarily for my own reference.

TaskCommandKey mapping
Display Find/Replace dialog boxEditFindCtrl+F
Find next revision or commentNextChangeOrCommentCtrl+Shift+F
Accept current changeAcceptChangesSelectedCtrl+Shift+A
Reject current changeRejectChangesSelectedCtrl+Shift+R

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  12:10 AM

It's always a little startling to me to watch over someone's shoulder when I'm helping them do something in Word. Seeing someone very carefully move the mouse pointer over to the little diskette (!) icon in order to save, or hearing them howl when the computer freezes, or hitting Enter to add a blank paragraph for vertical spacing — well, I think I know how Drivers Ed teachers must feel. So here are a few tips that cannot help but make someone take better advantage of the astounding capabilities of Word. In fact, I'm going to go out on a limb and say that these are some of the skills that determine whether you're a power user of Word.

0. Save early and often

This is a sort of pre-tip. Everyone has lost work in Word because Word froze or because the computer locked up. Talk about losing productivity. Learn to do this:
  • As soon as you've created a new document, save it. When it's still blank. Do not wait till you've written "enough."

  • Learn the keyboard shortcuts for saving: Shift+F12, Ctrl+S, and Alt+F,S. (Three of them! Your choice!) This makes it as trivially easy to save.

  • Save every time you pause. Basically, I reflexively save whenever I stop typing.
Adopting these habits does not mean that you'll never, ever lose work. But the amount of work you'll lose is measured in minutes (or seconds), not hours.

1. Learn keyboard shortcuts

Using the mouse slows you down. There, I said it. In fact, I'm going to say that most anything you do in Word using the mouse, I can probably do faster using the keyboard. Tips:
  • Word has tons and tons of built-in keystrokes for commands that are on the ribbon, status bar, etc. (list, list, more lists ...)

  • Many (most?) of the keyboard shortcuts that defined menu paths in Word 2003 and earlier (e.g., Alt+F,S to save) still work in ribbon-based versions of Word. (See also: Instructions on how to use the keyboard with the ribbon.)

  • You can map and remap any arbitrary keystroke to any command in Word. The only real trick is in knowing which of the hundreds of commands you need. (Instructions; don't forget to click Assign.)

  • You can record macros (see below) and map them to a keystroke.
Really, there's no excuse not to have a large repertoire of keystrokes for commands that you use all the time.

2. Learn to work with "hidden" characters on

Word can display characters that aren't normally visible, including spaces, tabs, and paragraphs marks. (And a few others.) Like this:

It's incredibly useful to know where these characters are. For example, it's a way to solve problems with weird formatting; is that blank space between two paragraphs the result of a paragraph-formatting setting or just a stray paragraph mark? Is that two spaces after that period or just one? Is there a tab in front of that paragraph or just spaces? For another example, because paragraph formatting is also "stored" in the "paragraph mark," being able to copy a paragraph mark and paste it elsewhere proves to be an easy to way to transfer formatting.

People unused to these marks find them distracting. Two pieces of advice. One is that it's possible to get used to them. (I almost always work with those characters showing.) Two is that you can easily toggle them off and on using Ctrl+Shift+8.

3. Learn to work with revision marks

Revision marks and comments are one of the crowning glories of using Word as an authoring tool. (In contrast to editing HTML directly, for example.) You should know how to do this:
  • Use Ctrl+Shift+E to turn revisions on and off. (Equivalent of Review tab > Track Changes > Track Changes [On|Off])

  • Use Alt+V,A to hide and show revision marks. (Equivalent of Review tab > Final)

  • Set your name/initials so that comments that you add include your ID.

4. Learn how to format correctly

(I'm a little hesitant about the term "correctly" here, but I'll go with it.) If you want blank spaces between paragraphs, the olde-tyme, typewriter-like way to do it is to insert a blank paragraph, i.e., an extra return. The preferred way to do it, however, is to format the paragraph to include extra space before and/or after:

Similarly, the way to indent a paragraph is not to use a tab, but to set its indentation (or its first-line indentation):

Doing things the typewriter way just means someone (perhaps you) is going to have to go in there and clean up the mess later, when someone decides that nope, you want different spacing in the document. Or no spacing. (Tip: Search for ^p^p and replace it with ^p)

In both cases, and others like this, the really correct way to do this is to create a style that has the characteristics you need and apply that (see below). However, to use styles effectively, you do need to have a good grasp of how to use the formatting features of Word.

5. Learn to use styles

One of the changes introduced with the ribbon in Word 2007 was to put styles right in your face — in fact, to make them as prominent as other formatting options:

This is good, because, basically, you should use styles instead of manual font or paragraph formatting. I have belabored the many advantages of using styles before, but here's a summary:
  • Formatting cleanliness.
  • Ease of global changes.
  • Reusable formatting within and between documents.
  • Semantic tagging of content (searchable by style).
When I teach the styles class, I tell the students that if they intend to share a document or reopen it later — ever — they should use styles. Unless you're writing a letter to your mother, use styles. If you're creating anything in Word that has a professional purpose — memo, report, documentation, term paper, book manuscript, resume — use styles.

Some tips and things to know about styles:
  • Style definitions can "cascade", via the Style based on settings when you create a new style:

    For example, if you create a new style based on Normal, and then you change the font for Normal, the font for the new style will change as well. Very powerful feature.

  • Ctrl+Shift+S opens the Apply Styles window. This lets you apply styles easily using the keyboard. (Creating a style name alias, such as "n" for Normal) can really speed the process of applying the style.)

  • Alt+Ctrl+Shift+S opens (actually, toggles) the Styles pane.

  • You can copy a paragraph style by copying the paragraph mark for that paragraph. (Obviously, you must show hidden characters as described above.)

  • You can assign keyboard shortcuts to styles.

  • Word can mark formatting consistencies (for example, characters formatting manually instead of via a style) using a blue squiggly line.

  • When you create or modify a style, you can save the definition either in the current document or in the Normal template (somewhat coyly referred to as New documents based on this template). Saving them in the Normal template means that the style is available for every document you work with. (More on the Normal template below.)

  • You can copy styles from other Word docs or templates by using the Organizer. (See also: official documentation.)

  • You can search, apply, and modify styles using macros. (See below.)
Combine styles with the Normal template (see next point), and you already have saved yourself hours of work in formatting your documents.

There are many tutorials: here's a sampling. Or if you're in the Seattle area, come take our class. :-)

6. Understand how to use the Normal template

The Normal template (Normal.dotm in the %APPDATA%/Microsoft/Templates folder) is the global repository for styles and macros for your copy of Word. The fundamental thing to understand, productivity-wise, is that Normal.dotm is always attached to your current document. And, of course, you can use the Normal template to define a layout and default formatting for any documents that you create for which you don't specify an alternative template. Things you should know:
  • Macros are stored in the template.

  • You can save new styles in the Normal template, and thereafter they're always available — use the New documents based on this template settings (see previous).

  • You can modify the styles in the Normal template, which constitutes a global change to that style. Don't like Word 2011's default font of 11-point Calibri for Normal? Change it permanently in the Normal template. Want to add an alias for Heading 1, or change the font or size? Do it in Normal.

  • You cannot remove base styles, like Normal, Heading 1-9, etc. However, you can remove styles that you yourself have added to Normal.

  • If you manage to corrupt or delete Normal.dotm, Word will auto-magically create a new one that has Word's default settings in it. (Altho of course any custom changes or macros you had added to the previous version will be gone.)

7. Learn to use macros

Macros are for automating tasks in Word. Virtually everything you do in Word — type, format, save, search, etc. — is implemented under the covers by executing Word commands, and macros let you string together these commands together to carry out complex and/or repetitive tasks. Basically, if you find yourself doing something repeatedly — especially in more than one document — you should create a macro.

Macros are written in the programming language called VBA ("Visual Basic for Automation"). This isn't a hard language to learn; the trick is actually in understanding the Word object model — the objects that you manipulate in order to insert text, move three paragraphs down, find all words that contain a particular string, or whatever. This is not a trivial task, I will readily acknowledge. Still, every power user of Word should be comfortable working with macros, to wit:
  • You should understand how to record macros, which is a simple way to string together the commands without knowing how to program. And it doubles as a very effective learning tool for understanding how to program Word.

  • You should understand how to open the macro editor and paste in macro code that someone else wrote. IOW, you should know how to add a macro to your document or template.

  • You should understand how to map a macro to a keystroke. (See earlier.)
For more info, search for Word macros.

More Reading

I hope this has been helpful. If you need some more info, try these sources:

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